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1196303 Inc v Glen Grove Suites Inc., 2015 ONCA 580:
 However, when an agent contracts with a third party on behalf of a disclosed principal, the agent may bind itself personally as well as binding the principal. As Justice Brandon stated in Bridges & Salmon v. Owner of The Swan,  1 Lloyd's Rep. 5 (U.K.H.C. Prob. Div.), at p. 12, the question of whether both agent and principal are liable on the contract depends on the objective intention of the contracting parties:
That intention is to be gathered from (1) the nature of the contract, (2) its terms and (3) the surrounding circumstances.… The intention for which the Court looks is not the subjective intention of [agent] or of [the third party]. Their subjective intentions may differ. The intention for which the Court looks is an objective intention of both parties, based on what two reasonable businessmen making a contract of that nature, in those terms and in those surrounding circumstances, must be taken to have intended.
See also Q.N.S. Paper Co. v. Chartwell Shipping Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 683, at p. 698.